1.General country overview
1.1 Geography

Some formulaic introductory sentence…


Google Map

Capital city Paris
Administrative organisation

France is the second largest country in Europe in terms of population with 1/6th of it living in Paris area.

Paris          2,138,551
Marseille   794,811
Lyon          472,317
Toulouse   433,055
Nice          338,620




Figure 1.2.1. Map of population in France. (Source:

France is a centralised administrative bureaucracy with strong top-down policies, also in culture. Ministry of Culture and its administrations play an important role for music in
France and, since the 80s, also in the “popular music” field in the following areas:
1.    Associations and institutions
2.    Taxes, law and regulation
3.    Infrastructures

France is also structured by regions: regional networks are very strong. Finally, municipalities play also a significant role in music fundings: venues, festivals and creations.

1.2 Society
Population 67,897,000
Official language(s) French
Recommended language to communicate with local professionals French, English
Currency EURO €
Average age 41,8 (median age, not average)
Human Development Index
Human Development Index

0.903 very high · 28th (2021)


1.3 Economy
GDP Nominal
GDP Nominal Per Capita
YOY growth 7.1% (latest figure, September 2022)
Unemployment rate 7.1% (latest figure, September 2022)
Minimum wage (gross) 1645€
Average wage (net) 2355 (Q1 2022)
VAT rates Standard: 20% Reduced: 5,5% for admission to cultural services
1.4 Communication
Smartphone users (number of) 48.63 mln (2022)
Mobile use (number of)
Broadband subscriptions - household penetration - Mobile subscriptions

There were 60.92 million internet users in France in January 2022.

France’s internet penetration rate stood at 93.0 percent of the total population at the start of 2022.

Internet usage in France

According to Médiamétrie - 2021: A Year in the Internet report:

“At the end of 2021, 92% of French households had an Internet connection and the number of Internet users in France was still increasing to reach 53.5 million people each month. Internet users surfed for an average of 2 hours 26 minutes per day, especially on mobile phones, which accounted for two thirds of our time spent on the Internet.

While 15-24-year-olds are still the most frequent web users with 3 hours 53 minutes of daily surfing, people aged 50 and over were more connected than in 2020: 2 hours 31 minutes per day for 50-64-year-olds, +13% in 1 year.”


1.5 Tax & legal
Visas, work permits, etc.


From: MobiCulture - Visas and residency permits:

If you are a citizen of a European Union member state, of the European Economic Area, of Monaco, Andorra or the Swiss Confederation

You do not need a visa or a residence permit to stay in France, regardless of the length of your stay.

Otherwise, There are two types of visas:

      Short-stay visas ("Schengen visa"), for one or more stays in the Schengen area for a maximum total duration of 90 days within any period of 180 days (about 3 months over the course of 6 months)

      Long-stay visas, required when the length of stay (or the cumulative stays) in the Schengen area exceeds 90 days per 180 days’ period.

 See more from MobiCulture website.



From Work permits and regulations:

In France, performing arts work - musicians, actors, dancers, etc. – is in principle only possible through an employment contract ("presumption of employee status").

Only European residents can depart from this principle if they are recognised as service providers established in another State in the European Economic Area where they habitually provide similar services, and come to work in France as independent workers, on a temporary basis (Article L7121-3 to 5 of the Labour Code).

Since 28 October 2016, performing artists and technicians coming to France to work as employees for 3 months or less are no longer required to obtain a temporary work permit. This exemption does not apply to foreign nationals already residing in France. 

See more from MobiCulture website.


Artist status

Artist and cultural professional status is highly regulated in France, compared to other countries in the EU and elsewhere. In France, performing arts work - musicians, actors, dancers, etc. – is in principle only possible through an employment contract ("presumption of employee status").


Social security cover and contributions

From MobiCulture Social security cover and contributions:

Cultural organisations inviting or posting artists and/or culture professionals in France are subject to social legislation whose principles vary according to the type of contract (direct hiring or contracting with a foreign partner), artists and/or culture professionals affiliation country, and whether or not bilateral agreements on social security have been concluded between France and the residence country.

You can check the rules that apply to your situation on the Centre of European and International Liaisons for Social Security (CLEISS) website (information in English).

See more from MobiCulture website.



From MobiCulture – Taxes

Taxation rules vary depending on the nature of your activity, the duration of your stay in France, whether or not a tax agreement has been concluded between your home country and France, etc.


Withholding tax

All activities conducted in France are subject to income tax. To avoid the risk of non-recovery, income earned in France by persons or companies residing outside France is subject to a withholding tax. This deduction is made by the debtor (the employer or the purchaser of an artistic performance taking place in France) on the sums due.

The details are dependent on whether there is a bilateral tax agreement between the country or origin and France. You can Find these conventions here: Les conventions internationales |

For more guidance on how the withholding tax is calculated for performing artists and technicians, see the MobiCulture website.



Foreign companies that are not established in France organising artistic performances taking place in France are subject to VAT in France. If the "recipient of services" in France is subject to VAT, then VAT is directly paid by the purchaser of the goods or the recipient of the services if they have a VAT number in France ("reverse charge" mechanism). The foreign structure does not charge VAT, but issues an invoice bearing the words "reverse charge".

If a company is established in the European Union, the European service provider must file a European Service Declaration with their tax authorities by registering the amount of the billed services and the VAT number of the customer on an electronic portal.

See more from MobiCulture website.



2.Music ecosystem
2.1 Music sector institutional structure

Some sort of an introductory paragraph that is formulaic, highlights
some important general factors.


Diverse organisations related to music

The list is based on Min of Cul.

Music Estonia (2014) A development centre and representative organisation established in 2014 to promote business and exports in the field of music. It offers various educational programmes and internship opportunities, as well as coordinates Estonia's representation at international contact events in the field of music. As of spring 2020, 76 music companies belong to Music Estonia.

Estonian Music Council (1992) A non-profit association uniting and representing music institutions and professional musicians, with 48 members as of spring 2020.

Estonian Music Information Centre (1995) The main goal of the centre is to introduce and promote serious Estonian music both at home and abroad by collecting and disseminating information about Estonian composers and their works, music organisations and events, performers and musical groups.

Arvo Pärt Centre (2010) The centre was founded in 2010 by Arvo Pärt and his family with the goal of creating opportunities for preserving and researching the composer's creative heritage in his homeland Estonia and in an Estonian-language environment.

Collective Management Organisations

Estonian Authors Society

Estonian Phonograph Producers’ Society

Estonian Performers Union

Music industry trade bodies/unions

Music Estonia – membership: ca 100 music companies of very diverse profile

Estonian Festivals Association

IFPI: n/a

Indie labels: n/a

Publishers: n/a

Music market overview table

For Estonia, a market report exists now (how much Estonian society spends on music)

2.2 Music sector general overview
Music sector organisations

The music sector is well organised with many strong professional associations, federations, unions and networks.


From 2021, several important music sector organisations were merged to create Centre national de la musique (CNM) – a public body, funded largely by the Ministry of Culture, but also from other sources, such as from a 3.5% tax on concert tickets.

CNM provides:

      Funding for festivals, venues, promoters, labels, publishers, songrwriters

      Corporate tax rebate for recording, live and publishing companies investing on emerging artists

      Resources, information, database, and training for professionals

      Music observatory

      Export, sustainability, innovation, gender equality, Europe, etc.


Collective Management Organisations

SACEM represents authors, composers and publishers and collects and distributes fees for performance rights, royalties on private copy, broadcasting, stores. Mechanical reproduction rights are managed through SDRM.

SACEM also provides funding programs for composers, publishers, festivals, record producers and export development.

SCPP (Société Civile des Producteurs Associés) and SPPF (La Société civile des Producteurs de Phonogrammes en France) represent the French recorded music producers. They collect royalties on private copy, broadcasting, stores (neighbouring rights) and provide funding programs for creation, record production, and festivals.

ADAMI and SPEDIDAM represent performers. They collect royalties on private copy, broadcasting, stores (neighbouring rights) and provide funding programs for creation, record production, and festivals.


Music industry professional events and conventions





Some major international events




Rencontres Trans Musicales / Bars en Trans






Jazz sous les Pommiers


Coutances (Normandy)

Rencontres AJC



Babel Music XP



Some major international events

Printemps de Bourges



Les Francofolies de La Rochelle


La Rochelle







Some major international events




Rencontres Trans Musicales / Bars en Trans






Jazz sous les Pommiers


Coutances (Normandy)

Rencontres AJC



Babel Music XP



Some major international events

Printemps de Bourges



Les Francofolies de La Rochelle


La Rochelle


2.2.1 Diverse organisations related to music

Some sort of an introductory paragraph that is formulaic, highlights some important aspects about the music ecosystem institutional structure, perhaps relates to relevant legal acts as well, etc.

2.2.2 Collective Management Organisations

Some sort of an introductory paragraph that is formulaic, highlights some important aspects about the copyright law in France

2.3 Live music sector
The size and overall structure of the live music market

The live music sector in France in 2019 (before the COVID crisis induced sharp fall) earned revenues in total of 2.3 bln €. 1,25 bln € was in ticket sales, with 980 mln € coming from popular music (source: CNM).

Due to the sharp fall in live sector earnings due to the COVID crisis, the estimation for the past two years is as follows:
●    For 2020: 171 mln € in ticket sales, -83 %
●    For 2021: 243 mln € in ticket sales -73 %

Figure 2.2.1. Ticket sales 2016 – 2021, mln €. (Source: CNM).

Figure 2.2.2. Amount of shows 2016 – 2020 (Source: CNM).

In 2019, there was in total ca 65 000 shows in popular music genres, earning 30 mln € ticket sales revenue.

Pop, rock music is representing the biggest market share in attendance and revenue.

The average price ticket for a concert in France is 35 € (median price is 17€), and the average number of visitors per concert is 476. 65% of the ticket revenue comes from bigger concerts, in venues bigger than 1500 capacity, representing only 6% of the number of total concerts. More than half of the concerts take place in venues smaller than 200 capacity. (Source: CNM).

Figure 2.2.7. Number of performances, visits and ticketing revenue share. (Source: CNM).

What is the music festivals scene like?

There are approximately 1800 festivals in France. In 2019, around 7.5 mln festival tickets were sold, earning 215 mln €.

Figure 2.2.3. Festivals in France by genre (source: CNM)

Information on many festivals can be found on the website of France Festivals


What is the venues and clubs scene like? are many different kinds of clubs and venues for music in France operating through various funding and business models. The exact number is not known, but when adding up the membership of FEDELIMA and CCBB and cross-referencing them with trade unions SMA and PRODISS, at least 700 differentclubs and venues can be named. These organisations, briefly described below, feature information on their members and can serve as source of information of venues and clubs in France.

FEDELIMA is a “national network gathering places and projects dedicated to popular music all over France” and has 157 members. FEDELIMA conducts yearly surveys about various aspects of their members’ activities and profile.

CCBB, or Collectif Culture Bar-Bars, a national association representing clubs and cafés with an artistic programming. Their approximately 500 member venues (concert cafés, culture cafés, culture clubs, etc.) are independent structures that organize concerts, shows contributing to cultural diversity and are important for emerging artists.

SMA, or the Syndicat des Musiques Actuelles is an employers' organization with a membership of more than 550 companies working in the contemporary music sector. SMA represents concert halls, festivals, show producers, labels, training centers, radio stations, as well as federations and networks.

PRODISS is the first national trade union representing
private performing arts. Created in 1984, its 404 members – producers, broadcasters, cinema operators and festival organizers – are spread throughout France.

There are a series of 17 modular venues in various French cities labeled Zénith. These can accommodate concert tours as well as other performing arts formats, such as plays, musicals and dance recitals. All Zéniths feature similar internal design of an indoor amphitheater that can seat at least 3,000 spectators (Source: Wikipedia). In 2019, 3 million tickets were sold to music events across all the 17 Zénith venues (source: CNM).

Information (including capacity and links) can be found on the Wikipedia page Le Zénith - Wikiwand

From the Zénith Paris website:

“It was in 1981 that the Ministry of Culture, under the aegis of Jack LANG, opened its doors to rock and, more broadly, to popular music. The ministry's policy then aimed to make known the richness of today's music. In liaison with the artists and the profession, the ministry entrusted a study to Daniel COLLING for a large capacity room in Paris.

The Zénith sprang from an idea, obvious, like all good ideas: to design a room specially adapted for these types of music. It materialized with two architects, Philippe CHAIX and Jean Paul MOREL, who, with entertainment professionals, invented the concept of ZENITH.

The Zéniths are designed and built to allow the presentation of various productions to a large audience, in optimal technical conditions. Inspired by the amphitheater of ancient Greece, the Zeniths are modular multi-functional venues:
●    capacity varies from 2,200 to 6,785 people.
●    Spectators can either be accommodated in an all-seated setup or “seated-standing”
●    The stage can be completely dismantled so that the stage space can accommodate other devices (ice rink, boxing or wrestling ring, etc.).

The acoustics of the Zénith rooms are designed to allow optimal reproduction of amplified music.

The venues are owned by public bodies, but are operated by private organisations. The shows are organized by live producers who hold a live producer license and not by the companies that operate the Zeniths.

Figure 2.2.4. Zénith venues in France (Source CNM).

Figure 2.2.5. Le Zénith Paris - La Villette.

SMAC stands for Scène de musiques actuelles and is an official label for venues with certain capacity and profile. The SMAC label, created by the French government in 2017 is awarded to cultural organisations focused on developing “popular music” in the broadest terms (in French the term is musique actuelles, perhaps best translated as contemporary music, but is taken to exclude classical academic music).   

The SMAC organisations are aimed at ensuring a diverse music life with a focus on emerging artists. They are required to develop the local music sector in three areas (source: Arrêté du 5 mai 2017 fixant le cahier missions et des charges relatif au label « Scène de Musiques Actuelles-SMAC » (rectificatif) - Légifrance):
1.    Creation, production and promotion of concerts;
2.    Support for professional and amateur musical practices;
3.    Various cultural action.

SMAC venues will also pay particular attention to the principles of:
●    diversity both through the works produced or presented to the public and the artists supported by the structure and other artistic or technical professions;
●    Gender equality in terms of access to work, production and programming as well as positions of responsibility in the structure and equal pay.

There are 89 SMAC venues with 300 – 2 000 seats capacity in France. In total, the SMAC labeled venues across the country offer nearly 6,000 public performances and bring together almost two million spectators each year.

There is a dynamic map on the French Ministry of Culture websites with all SMAC venues linked: Carte des scènes de musiques actuelles

Figure 2.2.6. SMAC venues in France.

Promoters, producers and agents

Large groups with affiliated companies

Live Nation, organising festivals such as Main Square Festival, Download Festival, Lollapalooza Paris, Les Etoiles and others.

AEG Presents, organising Rock en Seine Festival, etc.

Lagardère Live Entertainment, a group including venues and production companies, such as Folies Bergère,

Casino de Paris, etc.

Fimalac Entertainment, a group including venues and production companies, such as Salle Pleyel, 105 DB, Encore Productions, Uni-T Productions, Auguri Productions, Anteprima Productions, Gilbert Coullier Productions, TS3, etc.

A selection of independent agencies
A Gauche de la Lune, Alias Production, Radical Production, Gérard Drouot Productions, Le Rat des villes, Caramba Culture Live, Bleu Citron, Junzi Arts, Furax, AFX, Miala, Allo Floride, Base Productions, Vedettes, Wart, Melodyn, Octopus, Asterios Spectacles, 3C, Pbox, Zamora Productions, Dionysiac Tour, Mad Minute Music, The Link Prod, Voulez-Vous Danser, etc.

Companies working in the 360 model

Décibels Productions

Olympia Production

Arachnée Productions

Talent Boutique
Super !
+ some venues/festivals (La Cigale, We Love Green, etc.)

W Spectacle

Tôt ou Tard

Zouave Spectacles

Zamora Productions / Zamora Label

How to get booked for a show or organise a tour?

As for any market, it is necessary to find an agent working for that particular market or then be able to successfully land a booking directly from programmers of clubs, venues, festivals or other shows.

However, due to regulation reasons, in France it is especially important to find a local partner. French organisations working in music, and in the performing arts in general, are due to have a performing arts entrepreneur licence (licence d’entrepreneur du spectacle). Therefore, as an artist being “employed” (and all artists need to be employed, see “artist status” above) by a non-French company, you will have to fulfil two conditions:
●    Contracting with a French partner / venue having this licence
●    Fill in a declaration 1 month before the performance via THIS (if out of EEA) or THIS (if EEA) link (only in French)
(Source MobiCulture)

2.3.1 Figure 2.2.1. Ticket
2.3.2 Figure 2.2.2. Amount of shows
2.4 Recorded music sector
The size and overall structure of the recorded music market

Based on the figures from SNEP, the French recorded music market size (wholesale value) in 2021 was €861 million, an increase of 14.3% from €753 million in 2020. The market grew in all segments: digital consumption, physical sales, licensing of nighbouring rights through CMOs and synchronisation. The largest market segment is digital consumption, but surprisingly the segment that grew the most from 2020 to 2021 was sales of physical records (+21%).


Figure 2.3.1a. Source: SNEP-OCC


Figure 2.3.1b. Source: SNEP-OCC
Last updated: 2022

The digital music market – structure and main trends

Digital sales and consumption is now the leading market segment in the French recorded music market, having grown five times over the past ten years, from €110 million in 2011 to €506 million in 2021.


Figure 2.3.1c. Source: SNEP-OCC












Audio streaming subscription





Ad-supported streaming





Video streaming


























Table 2.3.1. Based on SNEP-OCC


Streaming is the dominant source of digital revenue (97,2%) and among streaming it’s the audio subscriptions that make up the bulk. While most of the streamers are young (between 16-34 year old make up 53%), the share of older segments of population streaming music has grown, indicating the audio streaming is gradually becoming the mainstream way to listen to music across all population age groups.


With 10 million paid subscriptions, up 39% in 2 years, usage brings together more than 14 million premium users (including family account users). Add the freemium offer users, there are now 22 million music and video streaming users in France.


The market share of digital streaming services was led by Deezer up to 2019, after which it is estimated that Spotify has taken the lead

Figure 2.3.4.

Last updated: 2022


The physical music market – structure and main trends

In 2021, the physical music market experienced a spectacular rebound compared to the previous year, for the first time since the early 2000s. The physical sales, comprising both CD and vinyls, still represents nearly 30% of music sales in France with an increase of 21% from 2020. 

This dynamism is due to a still solid and diverse French distribution network but also by the spectacular development of online sales. The share of e-commerce now represents1/3 physical sales, i.e. an increase of 14% in 2 years, generated by the boom both on brand websites (,, etc.) and in artist boutiques.


Figure 2.3.5.
















Video Music





Other audio










Table 2.3.2. Based on SNEP-OCC

Vinyl sales have grown steadily over the past years, reaching 5,2 million units sold in 2021 and bringing in revenue worth €78.9 million. This growth is led by young consumers with people under 35 (51%) among vinyl buyers.

Figure 2.3.6.

Last updated: 2022

What kind of (recorded) music are audiences listening to?

French (produced) music holds a strong market position with 83% of the top 200 best selling albums in 2021 being French production. It is useful to note, that in France, the concept of “produced in France” also includes artists from elsewhere, but signed to French labels and being released by them.

Based on CNM

In terms of music genres, Rap, Hip Hop, and RnB represent 61% of the Top 200 and 37% of the overall consumption. Chanson, pop, and rock represent 25% of the Top 200 and 43% of the overall consumption.


Figure 2.3.7.

Last updated: 2022

Some of the main recorded music companies

The three major music companies and their subsidiary labels active in France are:

Universal Music France
MCA, Capitol, Mercury, Polydor, Island Def Jam, Neuve, Romance Musique, Virgin, Universal Jazz & Classics, Decca

Sony Music Entertainment
Columbia, Jive Epic, Arista, S.M.A.R.T., A + LSO

Warner Music France

Parlophone, Elektra Records, WEA, Erato / Warner Classics, Rec. 118, Play On, Distributor of Play Two


Some of the independent labels in France are:

Tôt ou Tard    
Kitsuné Musique 
Cracki Records    
Filature Unity    
Roche Musique    
Jarring Effects    
Roy Music    
Vicious Circle    
Cold Fame    
Heavenly Sweetness

Un Plan Simple
No Format !
Zamora Label
Accords Croisés

Independent Labels & Distributors

Companies in the Wagram Stories group:
Wagram Stories
Wagram Music
3ème Bureau   
Cinq 7
Chapter Two
Belem Music

Companies in the Pias Group:
Le Label  
Harmonia Mundi   
World Village 
Jazz Village   

Digital distribution:
The biggest digital distributor in France (and the world) is Believe. The Believe group includes:
Animal 63  
All Points   
Nuclear Blast

Another digital distributor active in France is Idol, that also provide other artist development services.

The main physical distribution companies:
L’Autre Distribution

Last updated: 2022

2.5 Music publishing & sync sector
The size and overall structure of the music publishing market

The music publishing sector structure, revenues and other aspects in France is measured through a barometer organised through the initiative of the two trade associations of music publishing in France: the CSDEM (la Chambre Syndicale de l’Edition Musicale) and the CEMF (La Chambre syndicale des Éditeurs de Musique de France).

According to the 2020 report Baromètre de L’édition Musicale 2020, the total publishing sector revenue was €399 mln, a slight 2% drop from €405 mln in 2019. Given the time lag of publishing revenues, the full extent of the COVID crisis will be visible only in the 2021 and 2022 results. 81% of the revenues are generated by “popular music” segment, 10% by “library music” (music in media) and 9% by “classical music” segments. 


Figure 2.4.1. Music publishing revenues in millions of euros, categorised by type of revenue. (Source: Baromètre 2020).


Figure 2.4.2. Music publishing revenue shares in France, categorised by type of revenue. (Source: Baromètre 2020).


Two collective management organisations collect and distribute publishing revenues: SACEM (Société des Auteurs-Compositeurs et Éditeurs de Musique) and SDRM (Société pour l’Administration des Droits de Reproduction Mécanique des Auteurs).

SACEM collects public performance, online, TV and radio (inlcuding cable, satellite, etc.) and private copying levy. International revenues make an important part as well. SDRM collects license fees for (mechanical) reproduction.

Figure 2.4.3. SACEM collections in 2021. (Source: SACEM Annual Report 2021).

Domestic vs foreign repertoire
The share of domestic repertoire in the publishing revenues in 2020 was 43%, while the share in net publisher’s earnings (revenue less royalties and other payments to the rightsholders) was 72%.


Figure 2.4.4. Share of publishing revenues. (Source: Baromètre 2020).


Figure 2.4.5. Share of net publisher’s earnings. (Source: Baromètre 2020).



Established vs emerging talent
Established artists generate 74% of the music publishing revenues from the domestic repertoire with the net publisher’s earnings share being close, 71%. Emerging artists* generate respectively 26% of the revenue and 29% of net publisher’s earnings.  


Figure 2.4.6. Share of publishing revenues from domestic repertoire generated by established vs emerging artists.. (Source: Baromètre 2020).


Figure 2.4.7. Share of net publisher’s earnings from domestic repertoire generated by established vs emerging artists. (Source: Baromètre 2020).

* The definition of an emerging talent as defined in the Baromètre report glossary refers to an artist or an author who has not released more than two albums and these albums have not been sold more than 100 000 units. In case of authors, they have not contributed more than 50% of writing to maximum 2 albums selling more than 100 000 units.

Some of the main music publishing companies

Sony Music Publishing
Universal Music Publishing
Warner Chappell Music
BMG Rights Management

Alter K / Creaminal  
French Flair   
Strictly Confidential
Wagram Publishing   
Peer Music
Budde Music   
Lili Louise Musique  
Premier Music Group

2.6 Media
How audiences discover music?

According to the IFPI consumer study 2021 (Source: SNEP), streaming is now the leading way to discover new music. While radio remains a strong second overall, it is clearly falling behind in the youngest age group of 16-24 years old, or Gen Z. While listening music more overall than older age groups, for Gen Z streaming and TikTok are in the lead with social music discovery following.

Figure 2.5.1. Means of discovering new music in France. (Source: CNM, based on IFPI 2021 data).





Radio landscape and audiences `


Radio is overall still a very important channel with 3 out of 4 people in France listening radio daily. The audience shares by format in 2022 (source: Mediametrie) show that music programs make up more than 30%on average of the listening time. 



Figure 2.5.2. French radio audience shares by format. (Source: CNM, based on Mediametrie data).

Some of the most listened radios with heavy rotation in music are Energy NRJ, RTL2, Skyrock, RFM, Nostalgie, Chérie, Virgin Radioa, Chante France, Alouette, Top Music.

Relevant independent and public radio stations are Radio Nova, fip, france musque and france inter. Also important community radios, or radios associatives, are Radio Campus and Ferarock.

There is a French Quota Law for private radios. Established by law in 1986 to support francophone repertoire, radio broadcast quotas set a rate of "40% of french speaking songs during significant listening hours, half of which must be new talent." The law has been adapted several times, up until today (Toubon law 1994). (Source: CNM).

Figure 2.5.3. French speaking songs' and artists' quota. (Source: Centre national de la musique, CSA (2020))

Music genre in radio

Figure 2.5.4. Music genre in radio. (Source: CNM, CSA).

Music in TV

The internet is becoming the preferred source of TV programs, films, series and videos for 30 million internet users each month. In 2021, French people first chose to watch TV programmes (75% of daily video time), then videos on the internet (16%) and VoD/SVoD content (9%). (Source: Médiamétrie, 2022).

Most TV stations have few music programmes and play only the very mainstream heavy rotation repertoire. Some strategically important programmes are: Taratata (France 2), Quotidien (TF1), C à Vous (France 5), Tracks (Arte), Arte Concert, Basique (TV5 Monde).

France 2
France 3
France 5
NRJ 12
France 4/Culturebox
TF1 Séries Films
RMC Story
RMC Découverte
Chérie 25

Music press, blogs and webzines
Social media
What would a good PR & marketing strategy be like?